Los Angeles County West Vector & Vector-Borne Disease Control District
What’s all the buzz about…
Mosquitoes are indeed an annoying, biting, and bothersome pest, but that’s only
half of the problem they create. These buzzing little creatures are also serious
disease transmitters, commonly referred to as "vectors" in the public health
community. Among the more prevalent mosquito-borne diseases in the United States
are West Nile Virus, St. Louis encephalitis (SLE), Western Equine encephalitis
(WEE), and Eastern Equine encephalitis (EEE). Encephalitis is an inflammation of
the brain that can cause symptoms ranging from headaches and a fever to
paralysis, seizures, coma and even death. Both SLE and WEE are endemic in Los
Angeles County with local wild bird populations serving as the reservoir for
these viruses. And now with the emergence of new diseases, such as the Dengue
hemorrhagic fever in Texas and the West Nile virus (WNV) throughout the country,
surveillance work and control measures have taken top priority throughout the
United States. Reducing the number of mosquitoes, that are able to spread and
amplify these diseases, is the focus of vector-borne communicable disease
programs. While impossible to eliminate all mosquitoes, numerous methods are
employed to keep their numbers as low as possible.
Vector control districts employ an integrated management
program to reduce mosquito populations and keep the diseases they can transmit
under control. Surveillance includes intensive field monitoring, laboratory
testing, and research studies on the newly emerging and previously known
mosquito-borne diseases. Control methods include a myriad of procedures. Among
them are public education, the elimination of standing water, and the use of a
variety of environmentally sensitive biological controls, including mosquitofish.
About the fish . . .
native to southern and eastern
portions of the United States. Originally introduced into
California as early as 1922, they have been one of the most effective
non-insecticidal and non-chemical methods of controlling mosquitoes for over
eighty years. Mosquito fish do not lay eggs, but rather give birth to live
young. These fish, therefore, require no special environment, as most other
fish do, for depositing and hatching their eggs. They breed throughout the
summer and new broods are produced at intervals of about six weeks, with 50
to 100 young in a single brood. The young are approximately 1/4 inch in
length when born and grow to a maximum size of about three inches. They are
ready to begin the work of destroying mosquito larvae at once. Mosquitofish
can eat mosquito larvae as fast as the larvae hatch from eggs, as many as
100 per day. The earliest brood of the season, born in April and May, become
sexually mature and produce young when six to eight weeks old. Mosquitofish
live 2-3 years and can tolerate a wide range of temperatures.
Where to use (and not to use) mosquito fish . . .
Mosquitofish are intended to be used for stocking ornamental ponds, unused or
"out-of-order" swimming pools, and animal water troughs. You may receive
mosquitofish, free of charge, from your local vector control district. If there
comes a time when you no longer have a use for these fish, you may call the
district back and they will make arrangements for a technician to return the
mosquito fish to the district. Do not dispose of mosquitofish indiscriminately.
Although a natural way of controlling mosquito larvae without the use of
insecticides or chemicals, mosquitofish should never be placed in any natural
habitat, such as lakes, streams, rivers, or creeks. Their introduction into
certain natural habitats may disrupt the ecological balance that exists there.
Recent studies suggest that mosquitofish may be reducing amphibians native to
local streams including the California newt, the Pacific treefrog and the
California treefrog, which is a candidate for protected status.
It is against California Department of Fish and Game regulations
for private citizens to plant mosquitofish in waters of the State without a
permit. (Title 14 CCR, Fish and Game Code, Section 1.63, Section 6400, and
New Ponds . . .
Copper pipe or fittings in contact with the water can kill the fish. The
pipes can be coated with a special paint available at hardware stores. Plastic
piping is preferable.
New concrete ponds will leach lime into the water and make the water
alkaline. A new pond should be appropriately seasoned (filled, allowed to stand
several days, drained and refilled). The pH of the water is best in the range of
6.5 to 8.0. An inexpensive pH kit can be purchased at a pet or swimming pool
Wine or whiskey barrels will leach harmful chemicals into the water at
first. They should be soaked and flushed out several times or lined before
adding fish or plants.
Predators . . .
Provide large rocks and vegetation for shelter from predators such as
raccoons, possums, cats, herons and egrets. There should be rocks on the bottom
in the deepest part, where the fish will spend cold days in an inactive state.
At other times, since the fish tend to spend the night at the edges, overhanging
banks serve well to help protect them.
Duckweed . . .
This is a tiny floating plant that spreads quickly, covering the entire
surface of the pond, especially when the water is polluted with rotting leaves
or other organic debris. Fish usually do not survive these conditions. If the
pond has a heavy coverage of duckweed, it should be cleaned, and the recurring
duckweed kept to a minimum.
Algae . . .
The green plant that coats the rocks and pond
bottom is beneficial, producing 60% of the oxygen, and is found in a
Filamentous algae . . .
This may indicate an excess of organic debris. If
it gets too thick the fish may not be able to get to the mosquito larvae. Small
amounts, however, are a good food source for the fish and shelter for the fry.
Unicellular algae . . .
This turns the water green. It is not harmful to the fish but excessive
amounts may indicate a high level of organic decomposition and a low level of
oxygen. New ponds may turn green before becoming balanced, and an uncirculated
pond will normally be somewhat green. Maintaining ornamental plants will help
keep the water clear by competing for nutrients. Debris should be removed
regularly. Use algaecides with caution, some are deadly to fish. Check at a
garden nursery or tropical fish store for safe algaecides. Circulation and
filtration are the best ways to keep a pond clear.
Leaves . . .
Many leaves, like pine, oak, eucalyptus and
pittsoporum, contain chemicals that are harmful to fish. Accumulations of these
leaves make the fish too sick to eat the mosquito larvae.
For further information . . .
Anyone interested in obtaining mosquitofish, for
use in approved areas, should contact the Los Angeles County West Vector &
Vector-Borne Disease Control District at (310) 915-7370